Elaine Khoong, MD, MS

Assistant Professor

General Internal Medicine, General Internal Medicine ZSFG

Elaine Khoong is a general internist and clinical informatician at San Francisco General Hospital. She is interested in leveraging technology and implementation science to improve equity in delivery of primary care. Her research aims to reduce chronic disease disparities in historically excluded populations. Dr. Khoong's research interests are driven by her experiences as a primary care clinician caring for diverse patients within a safety-net setting.

2019 - , UCSF Primary Care Research Fellowship
2019 - Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training, University of California
2017 - Internal Medicine Residency, UCSF - Primary Care Track at San Francisco General Hospital
MD, MS, 2014 - MS in Clinical Investigations, Washington University
BS, BS, 2007 - Biomedical Sciences; Healthcare Management and Policy; Business & Public Policy, University of Pennsylvania
Honors and Awards
  • Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society, 2013
  • Herbert W. Nickens Medical Student Fellowship, AAMC, 2012
  1. Lipinsky DeGette R, McNamara A, Khoong EC. Hypertension Treatment: Caught Between Evidence and Reality. American journal of hypertension 2024. PMID: 38738306

  2. Amy R. Sheon and Elaine C. Khoong. Pillars, Policies, And Plausible Pathways Linking Digital Inclusion And Health Equity Health Affairs Health Policy Brief 2024. PMID:

  3. Kong M, Willard-Grace R, Khoong E, Sharma A, Mukerjee M, Su G, Tuot D. Implementing team-based telemedicine workflows in safety-net primary care. The American journal of managed care 2024. PMID: 38820184

  4. Rodriguez JA, Khoong EC, Lipsitz SR, Lyles CR, Bates DW, Samal L. Telehealth Experience Among Patients With Limited English Proficiency. JAMA network open 2024. PMID: 38722633

  5. Tuot DS, Mukherjee A, Churape A, DeFries T, Su G, Khoong EC, Lyles C. Lessons From the Field From a Volunteer Telehealth Ambassador Program to Enhance Video Visits Among Low-Income Patients: Qualitative Improvement Study. JMIR formative research 2024. PMID: 38619874

  6. Malini A. Nijagal, Elaine C. Khoong, Elizabeth B. Sherwin, Erinn Lance, Erin Saleeby, Amanda P. Williams, Melanie R. Thomas. Perinatal Community Health Workers: Lessons From California Health Affairs Forefront 2024. PMID:

  7. Garcia ME, Neuhaus J, Livaudais-Toman J, Feldman MD, Ochoa-Frongia L, Khoong E, Karliner LS. Telemedicine and Depression Screening After the Start of the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA network open 2024. PMID: 38345822

  8. Chu JN, Wong J, Bardach NS, Allen IE, Barr-Walker J, Sierra M, Sarkar U, Khoong EC. Association between language discordance and unplanned hospital readmissions or emergency department revisits: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ quality & safety 2023. PMID: 38160059

  9. Goh E, Bunning B, Khoong E, Gallo R, Milstein A, Centola D, Chen JH. ChatGPT Influence on Medical Decision-Making, Bias, and Equity: A Randomized Study of Clinicians Evaluating Clinical Vignettes. medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences 2023. PMID: 38076944

  10. Nouri S, Lyles CR, Sherwin EB, Kuznia M, Rubinsky AD, Kemper KE, Nguyen OK, Sarkar U, Schillinger D, Khoong EC. Visit and Between-Visit Interaction Frequency Before and After COVID-19 Telehealth Implementation. JAMA network open 2023. PMID: 37713198

  11. Khoong EC, Sherwin EB, Harrison JD, Wheeler M, Shah SJ, Mourad M, Khanna R. Impact of standardized, language-concordant hospital discharge instructions on postdischarge medication questions. Journal of hospital medicine 2023. PMID: 37490045

  12. Centola D, Becker J, Zhang J, Aysola J, Guilbeault D, Khoong E. Experimental evidence for structured information-sharing networks reducing medical errors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2023. PMID: 37487106

  13. Chen A, Ayub MH, Mishuris RG, Rodriguez JA, Gwynn K, Lo MC, Noronha C, Henry TL, Jones D, Lee WW, Varma M, Cuevas E, Onumah C, Gupta R, Goodson J, Lu AD, Syed Q, Suen LW, Heiman E, Salhi BA, Khoong EC, Schmidt S. Telehealth Policy, Practice, and Education: a Position Statement of the Society of General Internal Medicine. Journal of general internal medicine 2023. PMID: 37095331

  14. Lee W, Khoong EC, Zeng B, Rios-Fetchko F, Ma Y, Liu K, Fernandez A. Evaluation of Commercially Available Machine Interpretation Applications for Simple Clinical Communication. Journal of general internal medicine 2023. PMID: 36781579

  15. Fontil V, Khoong EC, Green BB, Ralston JD, Zhou C, Garcia F, McCulloch CE, Sarkar U, Lyles CR. Randomized trial protocol for remote monitoring for equity in advancing the control of hypertension in safety net systems (REACH-SNS) study. Contemporary clinical trials 2023. PMID: 36738916

  16. Lyles CR, Nguyen OK, Khoong EC, Aguilera A, Sarkar U. Multilevel Determinants of Digital Health Equity: A Literature Synthesis to Advance the Field. Annual review of public health 2022. PMID: 36525960

  17. Zeng B, Rivadeneira NA, Wen A, Sarkar U, Khoong EC. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Internet Use and the Use of Digital Health Tools: Secondary Analysis of the 2020 Health Information National Trends Survey. Journal of medical Internet research 2022. PMID: 36041005

  18. Khoong EC, Commodore-Mensah Y, Lyles CR, Fontil V. Use of Self-Measured Blood Pressure Monitoring to Improve Hypertension Equity. Current hypertension reports 2022. PMID: 36001268

  19. Yin L, Ng F, Rutherford-Rojas M, Williams M, Cornes S, Fernandez A, Garcia ME, Khoong EC. Assessing Medical Student Readiness to Navigate Language Barriers in Telehealth: Cross-sectional Survey Study. JMIR medical education 2022. PMID: 35969421

  20. Blake Gregory, Ariel Franks, Lilibeth Morales, Henry Rafferty, Elaine Khoong, Robin George, Carol Taniguchi, Anna Robert. System Interventions to Reduce Disparities in Covid-19 Vaccine Offer Rates. NEJM Catalyst 2022. PMID:

  21. Khoong EC, Rivadeneira NA, Pacca L, Schillinger D, Lown D, Babaria P, Gupta N, Pramanik R, Tran H, Whitezell T, Somsouk M, Sarkar U. Extent of Follow-Up on Abnormal Cancer Screening in Multiple California Public Hospital Systems: A Retrospective Review. Journal of general internal medicine 2022. PMID: 35641722

  22. Gupta K, Szymonifka J, Rivadeneira NA, Khoong EC, Adler-Milstein J, Ross J, Sarkar U. Factors Associated with Malpractice Claim Payout: An Analysis of Closed Emergency Department Claims. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety 2022. PMID: 35764489

  23. Fontil V, Khoong EC, Lyles C, Rivadeneira NA, Olazo K, Hoskote M, Sarkar U. Diagnostic Trajectories in Primary Care at 12 Months: An Observational Cohort Study. Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety 2022. PMID: 35649741

  24. Khoong EC. Policy Considerations To Ensure Telemedicine Equity. TO REMOVE 2022. PMID: 35500190

  25. Sharma AE, Khoong EC, Sierra M, Rivadeneira NA, Nijagal MA, Su G, Lyles CR, Defries T, Tuot D, Sarkar U. System-level factors associated with telephone and video visit use: Survey of safety-net clinicians during the early phase of COVID-19. TO REMOVE 2022. PMID: 35148271

  26. Nguyen MT, Garcia F, Juarez J, Zeng B, Khoong EC, Nijagal MA, Sarkar U, Su G, Lyles CR. Satisfaction can co-exist with hesitation: qualitative analysis of acceptability of telemedicine among multi-lingual patients in a safety-net healthcare system during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC health services research 2022. PMID: 35164746

  27. Khoong EC, Rodriguez JA. A Research Agenda for Using Machine Translation in Clinical Medicine. TO REMOVE 2022. PMID: 35132559

  28. Fontil V, Pacca L, Bellows BK, Khoong E, McCulloch CE, Pletcher M, Bibbins-Domingo K. Association of Differences in Treatment Intensification, Missed Visits, and Scheduled Follow-up Interval With Racial or Ethnic Disparities in Blood Pressure Control. "It's not the doctor - it's me." How self-blame obscures language and other structural barriers to diabetes care mong low-income Latinos with limited English Proficiency. 2021. PMID: 34878499

  29. Khoong EC, Sharma AE, Gupta K, Adler-Milstein J, Sarkar U. The Abrupt Expansion of Ambulatory Telemedicine: Implications for Patient Safety. TO REMOVE 2022. PMID: 35048294

  30. Sharma AE, Khoong EC, Rivadeneira N, Sierra M, Fang MC, Gupta N, Pramanik R, Tran H, Whitezell T, Fontil V, Lee SY, Sarkar U. Warfarin Monitoring in Safety-Net Health Systems: Analysis by Race/Ethnicity and Language Preference. "It's not the doctor - it's me." How self-blame obscures language and other structural barriers to diabetes care mong low-income Latinos with limited English Proficiency. 2022. PMID: 34993871

  31. Centola D, Guilbeault D, Sarkar U, Khoong E, Zhang J. The reduction of race and gender bias in clinical treatment recommendations using clinician peer networks in an experimental setting. Nature communications 2021. PMID: 34782636

  32. Reed G, Ahmad SR, Khoong EC, Olazo K, Jagsi R, Mangurian C, Sarkar U. Evaluation of Sexual Harassment Policies at Medical Institutions to Understand Attention to Harassment of Physicians by Patients. JAMA network open 2021. PMID: 34787660

  33. Chu JN, Sarkar U, Rivadeneira NA, Hiatt RA, Khoong EC. Impact of language preference and health literacy on health information-seeking experiences among a low-income, multilingual cohort. Patient education and counseling 2021. PMID: 34474924

  34. Khoong EC, Nouri SS, Tuot DS, Nundy S, Fontil V, Sarkar U. Comparison of Diagnostic Recommendations from Individual Physicians versus the Collective Intelligence of Multiple Physicians in Ambulatory Cases Referred for Specialist Consultation. Medical decision making : an international journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making 2021. PMID: 34378444

  35. Khoong EC, Olazo K, Rivadeneira NA, Thatipelli S, Barr-Walker J, Fontil V, Lyles CR, Sarkar U. Mobile health strategies for blood pressure self-management in urban populations with digital barriers: systematic review and meta-analyses. NPJ digital medicine 2021. PMID: 34294852

  36. Hemmat S, Khoong EC, Olazo K, Sharma AE, Mangurian C, Fernandez A, Sarkar U. Using incident reporting to understand and characterize sexual harassment of physicians by patients. Journal of general internal medicine 2021. PMID: 34254222

  37. Khoong EC, Fernandez A. Addressing Gaps in Interpreter Use: Time for Implementation Science Informed Multi-Level Interventions. Journal of general internal medicine 2021. PMID: 33948799

  38. Sharma AE, Khoong EC, Nijagal MA, Lyles CR, Su G, DeFries T, Sarkar U, Tuot D. Clinician experience with telemedicine at a safety-net hospital network during COVID-19: a cross-sectional survey. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved 2021. PMID: 37020792

  39. Rachel J. Stern, Henry F. Rafferty, Anna C. Robert, Carol Taniguchi, Blake Gregory, Elaine C. Khoong, Margaret A. Handley, Lukejohn W. Day, & Ellen Chen. Concentrating Vaccines in Neighborhoods with High Covid-19 Burden NEJM Catalyst: Innovations in Care Delivery. 2021. PMID:

  40. Khoong EC, Fontil V, Rivadeneira NA, Hoskote M, Nundy S, Lyles CR, Sarkar U. Impact of digitally acquired peer diagnostic input on diagnostic confidence in outpatient cases: A pragmatic randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA 2020. PMID: 33260212

  41. Khoong EC, Butler BA, Mesina O, Su G, DeFries TB, Nijagal M, Lyles CR. Patient interest in and barriers to telemedicine video visits in a multilingual urban safety-net system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA 2021. PMID: 33164063

  42. Valy Fontil, Lucia Pacca, Brandon Bellows, Elaine Khoong, Charles McCulloch, Mark Pletcher, Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo. Abstract 17207: Impact of Racial Differences in Treatment Intensification and Missed Visits on Disparities in BP Control. Circulation 2020. PMID:

  43. Khoong EC, Schillinger D. A Direction for the Next Decade of NIH-Funded Health Literacy Research. Health literacy research and practice 2020. PMID: 33170286

  44. Nouri S, Khoong EC, Lyles CR, Karliner L. Addressing Equity in Telemedicine for Chronic Disease Management During the Covid-19 Pandemic NEJM Catalyst: Innovations in Care Delivery 2020. PMID:

  45. Khoong EC, Rivadeneira NA, Hiatt RA, Sarkar U. The Use of Technology for Communicating With Clinicians or Seeking Health Information in a Multilingual Urban Cohort: Cross-Sectional Survey. Journal of medical Internet research 2020. PMID: 32250280

  46. Khoong EC, Fernandez A. Language, culture and preventable readmissions: pragmatic, intervention studies needed. BMJ quality & safety 2019. PMID: 31401549

  47. Hemmat S, Khoong EC, Sharma AE, Sarkar U. Sharing Stories, Searching for Solutions: Sexual Harassment of Physicians by Patients. The American journal of medicine 2019. PMID: 31300215

  48. Khoong EC, Fernandez A. Unsound Evaluations of Medical Machine Translation Risk Patient Health and Confidentiality-Reply. Volume 179 of Issue 7. JAMA internal medicine 2019. PMID: 31260024

  49. Khoong EC, Karliner L, Lo L, Stebbins M, Robinson A, Pathak S, Santoyo-Olsson J, Scherzer R, Peralta CA. A Pragmatic Cluster Randomized Trial of an Electronic Clinical Decision Support System to Improve Chronic Kidney Disease Management in Primary Care: Design, Rationale, and Implementation Experience. JMIR research protocols 2019. PMID: 31199334

  50. Khoong EC, Le GM, Hoskote M, Rivadeneira NA, Hiatt RA, Sarkar U. Health Information-seeking Behaviors and Preferences of a Diverse, Multilingual Urban Cohort. Medical care 2019. PMID: 31095058

  51. Khoong EC, Cherian R, Matta GY, Lyles CR, Schillinger D, Ratanawongsa N. Perspectives of English, Chinese, and Spanish-Speaking Safety-Net Patients on Clinician Computer Use: Qualitative Analysis. Journal of medical Internet research 2019. PMID: 31120020

  52. Khoong EC, Steinbrook E, Brown C, Fernandez A. Assessing the Use of Google Translate for Spanish and Chinese Translations of Emergency Department Discharge Instructions. JAMA internal medicine 2019. PMID: 30801626

  53. Cherian R, Sarkar U, Khoong EC, Ackerman S, Gourley G, Schillinger D. Standardization in Diverse Populations: Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in a Safety-Net Setting. Health literacy research and practice 2019. PMID: 31294306

  54. Khoong EC, Cherian R, Rivadeneira NA, Gourley G, Yazdany J, Amarnath A, Schillinger D, Sarkar U. Accurate Measurement In California's Safety-Net Health Systems Has Gaps And Barriers. Health affairs (Project Hope) 2018. PMID: 30395496

  55. Cherian R, Sarkar U, Khoong EC, Ackerman S, Gourley G, Schillinger D. Efficiency, Efficacy, and Power in the Implementation of a Medication Adherence Aid. Health literacy research and practice 2018. PMID: 31294287

  56. Khoong EC, Cherian R, Smith DE, Schillinger D, Wolf MS, Sarkar U. Implementation of patient-centered prescription labeling in a safety-net ambulatory care network. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists 2018. PMID: 29950392

  57. Matta GY, Khoong EC, Lyles CR, Schillinger D, Ratanawongsa N. Finding Meaning in Medication Reconciliation Using Electronic Health Records: Qualitative Analysis in Safety Net Primary and Specialty Care. JMIR medical informatics 2018. PMID: 29735477

  58. Khoong EC, Linker AS. An Appeal for Evidence-Based Resident Duty Hours Reform. Volume 177 of Issue 11. JAMA internal medicine 2017. PMID: 28975222

  59. Mandl KD, Khoong E. Pagers and Beyond in an Era of Microcommunications-What Is Old Is New Again. Volume 177 of Issue 8. JAMA internal medicine 2017. PMID: 28628698

  60. Khoong EC, Ross JS. The Need to Test Strategies Based on Common Sense. Volume 177 of Issue 7. JAMA internal medicine 2017. PMID: 28600912

  61. Stamatakis KA, Lewis M, Khoong EC, Lasee C. State practitioner insights into local public health challenges and opportunities in obesity prevention: a qualitative study. Volume 11. Preventing chronic disease 2014. PMID: 24625363

  62. Khoong EC, Gibbert WS, Garbutt JM, Sumner W, Brownson RC. Rural, suburban, and urban differences in factors that impact physician adherence to clinical preventive service guidelines. Volume 30 of Issue 1. The Journal of rural health : official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association 2013. PMID: 24383480

  63. Tabak RG, Khoong EC, Chambers DA, Brownson RC. Bridging research and practice: models for dissemination and implementation research. Volume 43 of Issue 3. American journal of preventive medicine 2012. PMID: 22898128