Anil Makam, MD, MAS

Assistant Professor

Anil Makam, MD, MAS, is an academic hospital medicine physician and a health services researcher. His research is at the intersection of geriatrics, hospital medicine, and post-acute care, specifically focusing on the role of long-term acute care hospitals (LTACs). His research interest stemmed from his simple observation that Dallas had many LTACs whereas San Francisco had very few, yet he cared for similarly sick and frail hospitalized older adults in both places. His research is funded by an NIA GEMSSTAR grant (2016-2018) and an NIA K23 Career Development Award (2016-2021). Dr. Makam applies health services research and epidemiological methods using Medicare claims, EHR data, and prospective observational cohort data to examine predictors and variation in LTAC use, comparative effectiveness of the LTAC model of care versus alternative care settings, and patterns of recovery for older adults transferred to LTACs.

Dr. Makam is also deeply passionate about evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal of the clinical scientific literature. He published his framework for the practice of EBM in a State-of-the-Art Review article in Circulation. He has also published a number of studies on EBM, high value care, and overuse of common medical practices. Prior to joining the faculty at UCSF, he has had extensive experience teaching EBM and critical appraisal to trainees and faculty.

Dr. Makam’s research has been published in leading medical journals, including JAMA, JAMA Internal Medicine, Circulation, Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, BMJ Quality & Safety, Journal of General Internal Medicine, and the Journal of Hospital Medicine; has been cited by the Institute of Medicine and Wikipedia articles; and has been featured in prominent news outlets, including NPR. He has received several research awards, including the New Investigator Award in 2018 by the American Geriatrics Society. He is Co-Director of Academic Development & Research for the Division of Hospital Medicine at Chan Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital. Nationally, he is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Hospital Medicine. Lastly, he has an active presence on Twitter.
MAS, 2013 - Clinical Research, UCSF
Fellowship, 2013 - Primary Care Research Fellowship, UCSF
Residency, 2010 - Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern
MD, 2007 - Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine
BS, 2003 - Biochemistry, Lehigh University
Honors and Awards
  • New Investigator Award, American Geriatrics Society, 2018
  • (mentor) Research, Innovation, Vignettes (RIV) Competition Honorable Mention in Innovation, Society of Hospital Medicine Annual Conference, 2018
  • (mentor) Housestaff Research Award Honorable Mention, Hopkins GIM Housestaff Research National Competition, 2017
  • Behavioral Health & Health Services Research Abstract Scholarship, American Thoracic Society, 2016
  • NIH Loan Repayment Program Award, NHLBI, 2014-2018
  • KL2 Clinical and Translational Research Scholar, UT Southwestern Medical Center; NIH/NCATS, 2014-2016
  • Hamolsky Junior Faculty Research Award Finalist (not awarded), SGIM Annual Meeting, 2014
  • Best Research Poster, California-Hawaii Regional SGIM Annual Meeting, 2013
  • Lipkin Award Finalist (not awarded), SGIM Annual Meeting, 2013
  • Best Oral Presentation by Jr. Investigator, Bay Area Clinical Research Symposium, 2012
  1. Kohn R, Makam AN. Are disruptions to geographic cohorting safe? 2022. PMID: 35504584

  2. Keohane LM, Mart MF, Ely EW, Lai P, Cheng A, Makam AN, Stevenson DG. Establishing Medicaid incentives for liberating nursing home patients from ventilators. 2021. PMID: 34668195

  3. Suen LW, Makam AN, Snyder HR, Repplinger D, Kushel MB, Martin M, Nguyen OK. National Prevalence of Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders Among Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations: NHAMCS 2014-2018. 2021. PMID: 34518978

  4. Sumarsono N, Sudore RL, Smith AK, Pantilat SZ, Anderson WG, Makam AN. Availability of Palliative Care in Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals. 2021. PMID: 33965406

  5. Schumacher RC, Chiu M, de Leon J, Krause K, Makam AN. Appropriateness of Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Transfer: A Multicenter Study of Medicare ACO Beneficiaries. 2021. PMID: 33617790

  6. Nguyen OK, Washington C, Clark CR, Miller ME, Patel VA, Halm EA, Makam AN. Man vs. Machine: Comparing Physician vs. Electronic Health Record-Based Model Predictions for 30-Day Hospital Readmissions. 2021. PMID: 33443694

  7. Brooks KC, Makam AN, Haber LA. Caring for Hospitalized Incarcerated Patients: Physician and Nurse Experience. 2021. PMID: 33409890

  8. Nguyen DQ, Ifejika NL, Reistetter TA, Makam AN. Factors Associated with Duration of Rehabilitation Among Older Adults with Prolonged Hospitalization. 2020. PMID: 33393088

  9. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Miller ME, Shah SJ, Kapinos KA, Halm EA. Comparative effectiveness of long-term acute care hospital versus skilled nursing facility transfer. 2020. PMID: 33176767

  10. Goyal P, Unlu O, Kennel PJ, Schumacher RC, Gilstrap LG, Krishnaswami A, Allen LA, Maurer MS, Rich MW, Makam A. Inclusion of Performance Parameters and Patient Context in the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Heart Failure. 2020. PMID: 33065263

  11. Makam AN, Tran T, Miller ME, Xuan L, Nguyen OK, Halm EA. The Clinical Course after Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Admission among Older Medicare Beneficiaries. 2019. PMID: 31449686

  12. Schumacher RC, Nguyen OK, Makam AN. Evidence-Based Medicine and the American Thoracic Society Guidelines-Reply. 2019. PMID: 31260021

  13. Keshvani N, Berger K, Gupta A, DePaola S, Nguyen OK, Makam AN. Improving Respiratory Rate Accuracy in the Hospital: A Quality Improvement Initiative. 2019. PMID: 31251168

  14. Zhang D, Yang D, Makam AN. Utility of Blood Cultures in Pneumonia. 2019. PMID: 30986394

  15. Schumacher RC, Nguyen OK, Desphande K, Makam AN. Evidence-Based Medicine and the American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. 2019. PMID: 30776054

  16. Nguyen OK, Vazquez MA, Charles L, Berger JR, Quiñones H, Fuquay R, Sanders JM, Kapinos KA, Halm EA, Makam AN. Association of Scheduled vs Emergency-Only Dialysis With Health Outcomes and Costs in Undocumented Immigrants With End-stage Renal Disease. Volume 179 of Issue 2. 2019. PMID: 30575859

  17. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Kirby B, Miller ME, Xuan L, Halm EA. Effect of Site-Neutral Payment Policy on Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Use. Volume 66 of Issue 11. 2018. PMID: 30281783

  18. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Xuan L, Miller ME, Halm EA. Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Use of Non-Mechanically Ventilated Hospitalized Older Adults. Volume 66 of Issue 11. 2018. PMID: 30295927

  19. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Halm EA. Shortcomings of Research Regarding Long-term Acute Care Hospitals and Skilled Nursing Facilities-Reply. Volume 178 of Issue 6. 2018. PMID: 29868749

  20. Nguyen OK, Higashi RT, Makam AN, Mijares JC, Lee SC. The Influence of Financial Strain on Health Decision-Making. Volume 33 of Issue 4. 2018. PMID: 29340939

  21. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Xuan L, Miller ME, Goodwin JS, Halm EA. Factors Associated With Variation in Long-term Acute Care Hospital vs Skilled Nursing Facility Use Among Hospitalized Older Adults. Volume 178 of Issue 3. 2018. PMID: 29404575

  22. Smith LN, Makam AN, Darden D, Mayo H, Das SR, Halm EA, Nguyen OK. Acute Myocardial Infarction Readmission Risk Prediction Models: A Systematic Review of Model Performance. Volume 11 of Issue 1. 2018. PMID: 29321135

  23. Chaulk AL, Wang JI, Makam AN. A Depressing Diagnostic Error. Volume 131 of Issue 5. 2017. PMID: 29284114

  24. Nguyen OK, Makam AN. What Are the Opportunity Costs of Self-Financing Medical Education? Volume 92 of Issue 12. 2017. PMID: 29210740

  25. Keshvani N, Berger K, Nguyen OK, Makam AN. Roadmap for improving the accuracy of respiratory rate measurements. Volume 27 of Issue 8. 2017. PMID: 29122976

  26. Badawy J, Nguyen OK, Clark C, Halm EA, Makam AN. Is everyone really breathing 20 times a minute? Assessing epidemiology and variation in recorded respiratory rate in hospitalised adults. Volume 26 of Issue 10. 2017. PMID: 28652259

  27. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Clark C, Halm EA. Incidence, Predictors, and Outcomes of Hospital-Acquired Anemia. Volume 12 of Issue 5. 2017. PMID: 28459899

  28. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Weinreich M, Mortensen EM, Halm EA. Predicting 30-Day Pneumonia Readmissions Using Electronic Health Record Data. Volume 12 of Issue 4. 2017. PMID: 28411288

  29. Weinreich M, Nguyen OK, Wang D, Mayo H, Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Makam AN. Predicting the Risk of Readmission in Pneumonia. A Systematic Review of Model Performance. Volume 13 of Issue 9. 2016. PMID: 27299853

  30. Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Velasco F, Amarasingham R, Halm EA. Vital Signs Are Still Vital: Instability on Discharge and the Risk of Post-Discharge Adverse Outcomes. Volume 32 of Issue 1. 2016. PMID: 27503438

  31. Nguyen OK, Halm EA, Makam AN. Further Limitations of the HOSPITAL Score in US Hospitals. Volume 176 of Issue 8. 2016. PMID: 27479675

  32. Makam AN, Nguyen OK. Clinical Criteria to Identify Patients With Sepsis. Volume 316 of Issue 4. 2016. PMID: 27458952

  33. Nguyen OK, Makam AN, Clark C, Zhang S, Xie B, Velasco F, Amarasingham R, Halm EA. Predicting all-cause readmissions using electronic health record data from the entire hospitalization: Model development and comparison. Volume 11 of Issue 7. 2016. PMID: 26929062

  34. Nguyen OK, Halm EA, Makam AN. Relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes. Volume 11 of Issue 7. 2016. PMID: 26929094

  35. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Zhou J, Ottenbacher KJ, Halm EA. Trends in Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Use in Texas from 2002-2011. Volume 2 of Issue 3. 2015. PMID: 26702452

  36. Nguyen LT, Sullivan CT, Makam AN. The Diagnostic Cascade of Incidental Findings: A Teachable Moment. Volume 175 of Issue 7. 2015. PMID: 25938592

  37. Makam AN, Steinman MA. Response to Einhorn and colleagues. Volume 63 of Issue 5. 2015. PMID: 25989580

  38. Makam AN, Nguyen OK, Auerbach AD. Diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of automated electronic sepsis alert systems: A systematic review. Volume 10 of Issue 6. 2015. PMID: 25758641

  39. Makam AN, Nguyen OK. Use of cardiac biomarker testing in the emergency department. Volume 175 of Issue 1. 2015. PMID: 25401720

  40. Nguyen OK, Chan CV, Makam A, Stieglitz H, Amarasingham R. Envisioning a social-health information exchange as a platform to support a patient-centered medical neighborhood: a feasibility study. Volume 30 of Issue 1. 2014. PMID: 25092009

  41. Makam AN, Boscardin WJ, Miao Y, Steinman MA. Risk of thiazide-induced metabolic adverse events in older adults. Volume 62 of Issue 6. 2014. PMID: 24823661

  42. Makam AN, Auerbach AD, Steinman MA. Blood culture use in the emergency department in patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. Volume 174 of Issue 5. 2014. PMID: 24614986

  43. Oresanya L, Makam AN, Belkin M, Moneta GL, Conte MS. Factors associated with primary vein graft occlusion in a multicenter trial with mandated ultrasound surveillance. Volume 59 of Issue 4. 2013. PMID: 24361199

  44. Makam AN, Lanham HJ, Batchelor K, Moran B, Howell-Stampley T, Kirk L, Cherukuri M, Samal L, Santini N, Leykum LK, Halm EA. The good, the bad and the early adopters: providers' attitudes about a common, commercial EHR. Volume 20 of Issue 1. 2013. PMID: 23962319

  45. Makam AN, Lanham HJ, Batchelor K, Samal L, Moran B, Howell-Stampley T, Kirk L, Cherukuri M, Santini N, Leykum LK, Halm EA. Use and satisfaction with key functions of a common commercial electronic health record: a survey of primary care providers. Volume 13. 2013. PMID: 24070335